Regional : Strengthening State-Owned Enterprise Accountability and Performance

Sovereign Project | 53076-001

The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will help improve institutional capacity and service delivery for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and in sectors and economies where SOEs are prominent. In response to Asian Development Bank (ADB) developing member country (DMC) demand, the TA will be coordinated with ADB operations departments and develop SOE diagnostics, SOE knowledge and tools, and institutional capacity for SOE oversight and reform.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Robinett, David
    Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department
    Request for information
  • Country/Economy
    Regional
  • Sector
    • Public sector management
Project Name
Strengthening State-Owned Enterprise Accountability and Performance
Project Number
53076-001
Country / Economy
  • Regional
Project Status
Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance
  • Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 9811-REG: Strengthening State-Owned Enterprise Accountability and Performance
Source Amount
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 500,000.00
Operational Priorities
  • OP1: Addressing remaining poverty and reducing inequalities
  • OP6: Strengthening governance and institutional capacity
Sector / Subsector
  • Public sector management / Reforms of state owned enterprises

Gender
No gender elements
Description

The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will help improve institutional capacity and service delivery for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and in sectors and economies where SOEs are prominent. In response to Asian Development Bank (ADB) developing member country (DMC) demand, the TA will be coordinated with ADB operations departments and develop SOE diagnostics, SOE knowledge and tools, and institutional capacity for SOE oversight and reform.

The TA is aligned with ADB Strategy 2030 and the draft operational plan for operational priority 6 on strengthening governance and institutional capacity in DMCs. It builds on the meetings and findings of the SOE Working Group, which included high level representation from across ADB and whose acting secretariat is the Governance Thematic Group (SDTC-GOV) of the Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department (SDCC). ADB is launching the TA to support its operational work with SOEs and implement ADB Strategy 2030, which emphasizes SOE reforms and internal governance to improve access to capital and service delivery. The TA is included in SDCC's 2019 results-based work plan.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

SOEs have long played an important role in economic development in Asia and the Pacific. Especially prominent in energy, transportation, and finance, SOEs also include major enterprises in mining, manufacturing, food distribution, and other industries. Their share of gross domestic product in Asian economies generally ranges from an estimated 20%40%. Beyond their impact on service delivery and productivity in key industries, SOEs can be an important source of both government revenues and liabilities. SOE governance and performance can ultimately influence the achievement of several sustainable development goals.

Governments sometimes created SOEs in areas like natural monopolies, where they felt the government should retain control. In many cases, governments used SOEs to launch new industries or expand existing ones, even when, historically, the private sector had developed these industries in more advanced economies. Across Asia and the Pacific, SOEs still play a prominent role in operating and expanding much needed infrastructure.

Unfortunately, in too many Asian and Pacific economies, poorly performing SOE sectors effectively hinder sustainable development. Several years of reform have not addressed the causes of this core problem: vulnerability to political interference and corruption; an unlevel playing field with the private sector; and reduced SOE productivity due to soft budget constraints, poor internal and sector governance, and, crucially, little or no real accountability combined with multiple and conflicting objectives. In addition, SOEs may have hidden and contingent liabilities for the national budget.

Underlying these challenges are the root failures of SOE oversight and governance: systematic opacity and a deep resistance to useful disclosure; poorly designed and unfunded policy mandates; and legal and regulatory regimes that are ambiguous, incomplete, and unnecessarily distinct from the private sector. Most importantly, no part of the government has real responsibility for SOE performance or is held accountable for it. The nature of SOEs themselves, the quality of management, and how the state acts as owner of assets drive these underlying causes and the resulting negative effects. These challenges are compounded by the politically sensitive nature of SOEs and potential reforms.

ADB has long worked to address these challenges in its engagements with SOEs. ADB Strategy 2030 and the forthcoming operational plan on strengthening governance and institutional capacity emphasize that this engagement should continue and become more effective.

However, according to a 2018 Independent Evaluation report, supported reforms tended to be piecemeal and few addressed how the state acts as an owner of assets and who carries out that role(s) in the state administration. The Management response to the report supported the recommendations for ADB to strengthen operations dealing with SOE reforms.

ADB's approach to SOE reform is consistent with international experience. For decades, countries around the world made repeated reforms to SOEs. In most countries, these reforms did not sufficiently address root causes and their results were often disappointing. With only partial reforms, countries still experienced limited private sector development; poor delivery of and limited investments in energy, transportation, finance, and other key areas; adverse budgetary impacts; and heightened vulnerability to economic shocks.

After 2000, a growing number of countries focused reforms on how the state carried out its ownership functions. The exercise of these functions was often centralized, sometimes under the ministry of finance or industry, but increasingly in specialized holding companies or equivalent entities. In many instances, these reforms led to greater market contestability as barriers to entry were reduced and competition led to the dismantling or significant downsizing of SOEs, particularly in manufacturing and services. More broadly, these reforms increased commercial orientation, expected returns on capital and investment, transparency, and improved high-level decision-making, board appointment, and other aspects of corporate governance. Countries often pursued these reforms in conjunction with wider reforms to SOE performance management, sector governance, subsidies, public service obligations, and public financial management. Efforts to ensure a level playing field with the private sector often become more effective, as did ongoing corporatization, restructuring, and privatization.

Some economies in Asia and the Pacific led these reforms, which have now spread to others. When SOE governance is more advanced, substantial scope typically remains for further improvement to help access capital markets, increase infrastructure finance and service delivery, and improve reporting on and increased consideration of wider environmental, social, and governance issues.

Impact

Service delivery by SOEs strengthened (ADB Strategy 2030)

Project Outcome

Description of Outcome

Improvement of SOE governance and oversight in selected DMCs supported

Progress Toward Outcome

Implementation Progress

Description of Project Outputs

SOE diagnostics prepared

SOE knowledge and tools developed

Capacity development for SOE oversight and reform supported

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location
Regional

Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects

Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples

Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation

During Project Design
During Project Implementation

Business Opportunities

Consulting Services
ADB will engage consultants following the ADB Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and its associated project administration instructions and/or staff instructions. The TA will require 17 person-months of international and 9 person-months of national consultant inputs with expertise in SOE policy, governance, operations, and related sectoral, private finance, and public finance expertise. ADB will recruit individual consultants for outputs 13, and a national consulting firm for output 3 using consultants' qualification selection, as provided for in the staff instructions for ADB Administered Consulting Services for very small assignments which do not exceed $200,000. SDTC-GOV will manage all consultants unless otherwise agreed with operations departments. Where appropriate, output-based contracts will be considered for administrative efficiency and for a simplified disbursement process.
Procurement
ADB will carry out procurement following the ADB Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and its associated project administration instructions and/or staff instructions.

Contact

Responsible ADB Officer
Robinett, David
Responsible ADB Department
Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department
Responsible ADB Division
Goverance Thematic Group
Executing Agencies
Asian Development Bank

Timetable

Concept Clearance
15 Jul 2019
Fact Finding
-
MRM
-
Approval
27 Sep 2019
Last Review Mission
-
Last PDS Update
30 Sep 2019

Funding

TA 9811-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
27 Sep 2019 - 27 Sep 2019 31 Aug 2021 31 Aug 2022 26 Nov 2022
Financing Plan/TA Utilization
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
500,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 500,000.00
Cumulative Disbursements
Date Amount
07 Dec 2022 437,222.87

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Access to Information Policy (AIP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.


Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.


Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

Title Document Type Document Date
Strengthening State-Owned Enterprise Accountability and Performance Validation of Technical Assistance Completion Reports Feb 2024

Related Publications

None currently available.


The Access to Information Policy (AIP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.

Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
State-Owned Enterprise Knowledge Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed
International State-Owned Enterprise Knowledge Specialist: Privatization Individual - Consulting Closed
National State-Owned Enterprise Policy Specialists Individual - Consulting Closed
International State-Owned Enterprise Policy Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed
Commercial Borrowing by State Owned Enterprises Individual - Consulting Closed
Insurance Specialist (Pacific Ports Disaster Insurance) Individual - Consulting Closed
International State-Owned Enterprise Policy Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed
International State-Owned Enterprise Knowledge Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed

Contracts Awarded

No contracts awarded for this project were found

Procurement Plan

None currently available.