Regional: Building Coastal Resilience through Nature-Based and Integrated Solutions

Sovereign (Public) Project | 54212-001

Building coastal resilience in Asia-Pacific is an urgent priority. It requires adopting long-term and integrated planning approaches that favor adaptive management, a risk-based approach, inclusive processes, and consider the full spectrum of coastal resilience options. Given their potential benefits, nature-based solutions should be considered as part of integrated plans combining _grey_ and _green_ solutions and _soft_ measures such as awareness raising, policy making, land use planning and early warning. The TA will support DMCs based on demand and potential impact and will explore linkages with other ADB programs. Consideration will also be given to potential for knowledge-sharing and scaling-up of TA activities across the region.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Ricciardi, Francesco
    Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department
    Request for information
  • Country
    Regional
  • Sector
    • Water and other urban infrastructure and services
Project Name Building Coastal Resilience through Nature-Based and Integrated Solutions
Project Number 54212-001
Country Regional
Bangladesh
Brunei Darussalam
India
Indonesia
Kiribati
Malaysia
Maldives
Pakistan
Philippines
Marshall Islands
Sri Lanka
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 6742-REG: Building Coastal Resilience through Nature-Based and Integrated Solutions
Regional Cooperation and Integration Fund US$ 500,000.00
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 500,000.00
Ireland Trust Fund for Building Climate Change and Disaster Resilience in Small Island Developing States US$ 925,000.00
Global Environment Facility US$ 69,000.00
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Regional integration
Drivers of Change Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development / Water-based natural resources management

Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban flood protection

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description

Building coastal resilience in Asia-Pacific is an urgent priority. It requires adopting long-term and integrated planning approaches that favor adaptive management, a risk-based approach, inclusive processes, and consider the full spectrum of coastal resilience options. Given their potential benefits, nature-based solutions should be considered as part of integrated plans combining _grey_ and _green_ solutions and _soft_ measures such as awareness raising, policy making, land use planning and early warning. The TA will support DMCs based on demand and potential impact and will explore linkages with other ADB programs. Consideration will also be given to potential for knowledge-sharing and scaling-up of TA activities across the region.

Output 1: Strategic plans, policies and programs to build coastal resilience prepared. Output 1 will support the (i) development of long-term integrated plans for building coastal resilience through integrated and sustainable solutions, such as coastline management plans or adaptation plans following a _pathway approach_, strengthening multi-level governance arrangements, following participative processes when possible, prioritizing plans with regional benefits, and integrating with larger strategies for maximum impact; (ii) identification of necessary policies and investments to enhance coastal resilience and sustainably manage coastal ecosystems, including the development of sustainable coastal livelihood and economic development programs, with special attention to vulnerable groups and women's empowerment.

Output 2: Nature-based and integrated coastal resilience investments supported. The TA will provide specialist support, based on demand from operations departments and DMCs, to identify, prepare and accelerate interventions to boost coastal resilience, prioritizing activities that achieve multiple resilience benefits and those with regional benefits, and promoting multi-functional design and long-term sustainability. The scope of specialists' inputs will focus on (i) nature-based, soft and hybrid solutions; and (ii) economic development opportunities and livelihoods for coastal communities. Such inputs could include (i) assessments to inform ADB's country partnership strategy and country operation business plans; (ii) supporting the preparation of concept papers; and (iii) providing inputs to improve project design and implementation.

Output 3: Knowledge, regional cooperation, and financing for building coastal resilience improved. The TA will develop knowledge products to advance coastal resilience solutions know-how, the use of nature-based approaches, and the role and value of coastal ecosystems including its economic dimension and maintenance. The TA will encourage regional cooperation on coastal and marine ecosystems as regional public goods. For this purpose, the TA will work with regional programs, and specifically with the Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia -Malaysia-Philippines East Association of Southeast Asian Nations Growth Area, and other cooperative platforms such as the South Asia Cooperative Environment Program and the Atoll Dialogue, to strengthen regional knowledge sharing, replicate successful approaches and foster the dialogue among participating DMCs on how to scale up successful initiatives to regional levels, encouraging a more regional approach to dealing with coastal ecosystems. Cross-country study visits, regional knowledge-sharing workshops and dialogue events will be organized for this purpose in collaboration with regional cooperation programs. The TA will also support the development of innovative ocean financing mechanisms (e.g. a coral reef insurance initiative) and the mobilization of additional funding.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Coastal cities, communities and island nations in the Asia-Pacific region are highly exposed to climate and disaster related shocks and stresses. Nine out of the top ten cities in terms of population exposure to extreme events are in Asia, a region with more than 460 million people living in low-elevation coastal zones which experiences average daily losses of $200 million due to disasters caused by geophysical and hydrometeorological hazards. Coastal communities in small island developing states (SIDS), even if less populated, are amongst the most exposed and vulnerable to coastal flooding, erosion and rising sea levels. A person in the Pacific SIDS is three to five times more at risk than those in other parts of the region, and one-third of all inhabitants in the Pacific SIDS live only a few meters above sea level.

Climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of natural hazards. This affects Asia and the Pacific's coastal cities, communities and island nations. Under the current greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, mean sea level could rise by more than one meter by 2100. Such rise in sea levels could flood entire coastal cities and communities in atolls, expose hundreds of millions of people to the risks of more severe and frequent flooding, and increase coastal erosion, land loss and salinization. Coastal populations are projected to face (i) increased intensity of tropical cyclones with increased precipitation and higher extreme sea levels due to greater storm surges; (ii) increased wave heights across the tropical eastern Pacific; (iii) increased frequency, duration, spatial extent and intensity of marine heatwaves; and (iv) increased frequency of extreme El Ni?o and La Ni?a events, likely intensifying existing hazards.

Critical coastal ecosystems that protect coastlines are rapidly degraded or lost, increasing exposure and recovery times. Healthy coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, coastal wetlands, beaches and dunes are _natural buffers_ that provide a first line of defense for coastal cities, communities and infrastructure. They dissipate wave energy and storm surges, protect against erosion and flooding, and help buffer the impacts of sea level rise. They also support food security, livelihoods and the tourism and fisheries economies, provide non-market benefits and are regional public goods. , However, these ecosystems are rapidly declining. The main drivers of decline are unsustainable development and practices (e.g. clearance of mangroves, drainage of wetlands for agriculture, overfishing, destructive fishing methods, mining, pollution and urban expansion) though climate change impacts, (e.g. ocean warming, acidification, loss of oxygen, salinity intrusion) are expected to have larger negative impacts in the near future.

The degradation of coastal ecosystems and increased recurrence and severity of natural hazards are increasing the risk to coastal communities. Within these communities, poor and marginalized groups, who often live in the most exposed areas along coasts and are most dependent on local natural resources, are the most affected. When an event damages an already stressed ecosystem, this further threatens food security and incomes, thereby prolonging the period of post-disaster recovery. Women, in particular, have been identified as the most vulnerable social group, followed by children, the elderly and disabled. Women play a critical role in building coastal resilience as decisionmakers, stakeholders, and educators, but they continue to be an untapped resource due to lack of access to resources, training, and decision-making.

7. Integrated nature-based approaches consist of measures to protect, sustainably manage and restore ecosystems to address societal challenges such as exposure to natural hazards, and can increase the resilience of coastal communities while unfolding multiple economic, societal, gender responsive and climate change mitigation co-benefits. However, coastal planning and development does not usually adopt such approaches, mainly due to:

a. Low awareness of the critical role of natural resources in resilience. The benefits of coastal ecosystems are rarely quantified and accounted for in coastal protection, which means decisions are being made without fully recognizing their value.

b. Lack of funding. Ecosystem management is generally underfunded and a lower priority. Further, coastal ecosystems are regional and global public goods with major economic benefits but without direct revenue-generating models, and, because they are not viewed as infrastructure' they are less likely to receive funding from hazard mitigation budgets.

c. Capacity constraints and limited scientific knowledge specific to local contexts. There is still uncertainty about the magnitude and timeline of future risks, and coastal decision-makers often lack the expertise, data, and resources needed to create and implement long-term, comprehensive and flexible plans to adapt to different scenarios.

d. Weak governance and institutional arrangements for integrated decision-making. In many contexts, governance arrangements are fragmented across administrative boundaries, sectors and countries, since multi-country coordination requires greater capacity and trust between nations. This leads to a siloed approach, preventing integrated responses.

Impact Resilience of coastal communities, cities, infrastructure and ecosystems enhanced.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome DMC coastal resilience programs, plans and actions improved
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Strategic plans, policies and programs to build coastal resilience prepared

Nature-based and integrated coastal resilience investments supported

Knowledge, regional cooperation, and financing for building coastal resilience improved

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location Bangladesh - Nation-wide; Brunei Darussalam - Nation-wide; India - Nation-wide; Indonesia - Nation-wide; Kiribati - Nation-wide; Malaysia - Nation-wide; Maldives - Nation-wide; Marshall Islands - Nation-wide; Pakistan - Nation-wide; Philippines - Nation-wide; Sri Lanka - Nation-wide; Tuvalu - Nation-wide; Vanuatu - Nation-wide
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services Firm and Individuals
Procurement Procurement of computers, printers, photocopiers, and training materials
Responsible ADB Officer Ricciardi, Francesco
Responsible ADB Department Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department
Responsible ADB Division SDTC-ENV
Executing Agencies
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
Timetable
Concept Clearance 30 Jun 2020
Fact Finding 13 Apr 2020 to 13 Apr 2020
MRM -
Approval 30 Jun 2021
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 02 Jul 2021

TA 6742-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
30 Jun 2021 - 30 Jun 2021 31 May 2024 - -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
1,000,000.00 994,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1,994,000.00 07 Sep 2021 0.00

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Tenders

Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
ADB/GEF Project Development Specialist - Blue Finance Individual - Consulting Closed 24 Aug 2021 30 Aug 2021

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