Mongolia : Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar

Sovereign Project | 55245-001

The TA will be aligned with the following impact: urban traffic congestion in Ulaanbaatar reduced. The outcome will be ability of the Mongolian authorities to develop and implement urban transport solutions enhanced.

Project Details

  • Project Officer
    Miller, Jeffrey M.
    East Asia Department
    Request for information
  • Country/Economy
  • Sector
    • Transport
Project Name Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar
Project Number 55245-001
Country / Economy Mongolia
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 6868-MON: Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 500,000.00
Operational Priorities OP3: Tackling climate change, building climate and disaster resilience, and enhancing environmental sustainability
OP4: Making cities more livable
OP6: Strengthening governance and institutional capacity
Sector / Subsector

Transport / Urban roads and traffic management

Gender No gender elements
Description The TA will be aligned with the following impact: urban traffic congestion in Ulaanbaatar reduced. The outcome will be ability of the Mongolian authorities to develop and implement urban transport solutions enhanced.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Mongolia had an urbanization rate of 57% in 1989, just before its transition to a democratic, free market economic, and the urban population remained relatively stable until the end of the 1990s. However, the large loss of livestock following dzuds (a succession of droughts and severe winters), resulted in large unplanned migration from rural areas to urban areas with Ulaanbaatar the destination for most of these internal migrants. The largest migrations happened after the dzuds in 2000-2001 and in 2010 but this rural-urban migration has become a permanent feature of Mongolia in the past twenty years with worsening conditions in rural areas.

By 2020, 70% of Mongolia's population lived in urban areas. Ulaanbaatar's population has reached 1.54 million people, accounting for almost 50% of Mongolia's total population of 3.3 million as well as 66% of the urban population and 63% of gross domestic product (GDP). According to the National Statistics Office, it is projected that the population of Ulaanbaatar will reach more than 2 million by 2035, outpacing national population growth. As urban growth was not followed by adequate investments, urban systems have exceeded their planned service life or deteriorated, becoming inefficient and undersized to meet present needs and planned future growth. This has led to major infrastructure gaps with only 40% of Ulaanbaatar households living in apartments and serviced houses, while the rest live in ger areas. In Ulaanbaatar, ger areas represent 840,000 residents among the 1.54 million capital population, or 30% of the entire country's population. Most roads in the ger areas are unpaved, and as a result, buses cannot access many of these areas. The paved roads that do exist are often missing pedestrian footpaths and other safety features such as signage, speed bumps, and safe crossings.

In addition to the steep rise in the population of Ulaanbaatarthe population growth rate averaged 5.6% per annum during 2015-2019vehicle registration increased 13.4 times from 2000 to 2019 but the urban road network only expanded 2.5 times in the same period. Public transport is available in Ulaanbaatar, with 21 bus companies operating on 75 main routes, but quality and coverage are poor, which has encouraged private vehicle use and informal taxis servicesthe predominant use of private cars and the poor state of the roads has resulted in a highly polluting transport system in Ulaanbaatar. Women in Ulaanbaatar face serious safety concerns, including gender-based violence, in public spaces and on public transport. The urban road network has also deteriorated as a result of the high traffic volume, funding gaps in maintenance, and flooding. These factors, combined with inadequate zonal planning and lack of enforcement of zoning regulations, poor traffic engineering design, and disregard for traffic laws contribute to heavy traffic congestion and long transit times. Road safety is another concern with pedestrians in Ulaanbaatar where they accounted for 60% (1,616) of road-related injuries and 67% (88) of road-related fatalities recorded in 2019.

Resolving urban traffic congestion, strengthening public transport, improving road safety, and greening urban transport are all identified as priorities by the government in Vision 2050 and in the Government Action Plan, 2020-2024. The government has developed policies and strategies to manage the rapid urban expansion; however, there is no comprehensive urban transport masterplan. As a result, interventions in urban transport have been piecemeal, and implementation has had a mixed record of success.

ADB has provided support in the past on urban transport focusing on intelligent transport systems and urban transport development, in addition to broader transport sector interventions covering road development and maintenance and road safety. ADB has ongoing support to improve transport services in the ger areas and has a planned $100 million loan for Traffic Management Improvements. Furthermore, concurrent to this TA, ADB is preparing a Small Expenditure Financing Facility for Board consideration in 2021 with the first activity under this facility to ensure project readiness of the upcoming loan. This proposed TA will complement these ongoing activities and is being processed by the same team leading these other operations. In addition to ADB, the World Bank is providing a loan to finance street network infrastructure for selected transport corridors and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency is undertaking several traffic studies with plans to follow this with potential lending. As identified below, the proposed TA will contribute to improved policy, financing and development partner coordination.


urban mobility in Ulaanbaatar improved

Project Outcome
Description of Outcome

The outcome will be Urban transport management and planning for Ulaanbaatar improved.

Progress Toward Outcome Consultant engagement ongoing.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Recommendations on public transport options finalized.

Knowledge and skills of government and municipality staff on implementing urban mobility solutions improved.

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues) Consultants are currently being engaged.
Geographical Location Ulaanbaatar
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Stakeholders have been consulted during project design.
During Project Implementation Relevant stakeholders will be consulted during implementation.
Responsible ADB Officer Miller, Jeffrey M.
Responsible ADB Department East Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division EASI
Executing Agencies
Ulaanbaatar Municipal Government
Concept Clearance 16 Nov 2021
Fact Finding 12 Nov 2021 to 12 Nov 2021
Approval 10 Dec 2021
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 30 Sep 2022

TA 6868-MON

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
10 Dec 2021 13 Dec 2021 13 Dec 2021 31 Dec 2023 - -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
500,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 500,000.00 12 Dec 2022 48,757.79

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

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Title Document Type Document Date
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar: Technical Assistance Report Technical Assistance Reports Dec 2021

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

None currently available.

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.

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Tender Title Type Status Posting Date Deadline
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar - National Committee Support Consultant Individual - Consulting Closed
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar -National Traffic Engineer Individual - Consulting Closed
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar - MUB Project Management Focal Consultant Individual - Consulting Closed
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar -National Transport Specialist Individual - Consulting Closed
Improvement of Urban Mobility in Ulaanbaatar - National Legal Expert Individual - Consulting Closed
Project Coordinator Individual - Consulting Closed

Contracts Awarded

No contracts awarded for this project were found

Procurement Plan

None currently available.