District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

Publication | June 2014
District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

Findings suggest that districts that manage to improve their system can expect improvements in learning outcomes and serves as starting point in understanding what does and does not work in Indonesia’s education system.

This paper documents the effects of district education policies on student learning in Indonesian primary schools and finds substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. However, policy variables like school budgets, participation rates in teacher working groups, or student-teacher ratios, can explain only a fraction of the differences in learning across districts. Schools with more active teacher working groups and higher-qualified teachers achieve better learning gains.


  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Context
  • Data
  • District Teacher Management Policies and Student Learning
  • Conclusions
  • References