Effectiveness of Public Spending: The Case of Rice Subsidies in the Philippines

Publication | December 2008

This paper investigates the targeting and cost effectiveness of the Philippine rice subsidy program in view of the recent escalation in rice import cost.

It finds that the program suffers from significant exclusion of the poor and inclusion of the nonpoor, large leakage of rice, and high cost of transferring subsidy to the poor. Participation in the program is determined by physical access, households’ demographic profile, and quality of governance; whereas its use is driven by income levels, inflation, and regional location of residence.


  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The NFA Rice Program
  • Measures of Access to the Poor
  • Determinants of Access to NFA Rice
  • Summary and Concluding Remarks

Additional Details

  • Agriculture and natural resources
  • Economics
  • Poverty
  • Social development and protection
  • Social protection
  • Social protection - social assistance programs
  • Philippines
  • 1655-5252 (Print)

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