Foundational (K-12) Education System: Navigating 21st Century Challenges

Publication | May 2022

This publication highlights the need for the foundational education sector (kindergarten to grade 12, or K-12) to adapt to emerging challenges and explores ways of doing so. It is copublished with Queensland University of Technology.

As the world transitions to a knowledge economy, K-12 education faces several challenges. These include the need to improve student learning and the relevance of the curriculum, increase access to education, apply new understandings of human learning, and adapt to new technologies and an ever-increasing body of knowledge. This publication looks at how such challenges can be addressed amid system constraints and complex external pressures. It outlines recommendations in four broad areas: governance and systems; the curriculum and learning progression; teacher development; and teaching and learning resources.


  • Executive Summary
  • Background and Context
  • What to Learn: Knowledge, Skills and Disposition for 21st Century
  • What Children Currently Learn in K-12
  • Learning Progression Pathways
  • Assessment / Examination
  • 21st Century School Teachers
  • Principals and Education Managers for 21st Century K-12 Education
  • Teaching and Learning Resources
  • Governance and Management
  • Infrastructure and Learning Space

Additional Details

  • Education
  • Pre-primary and basic education
  • Education sector development
  • Secondary Education
  • 40
  • 8.5 x 11
  • 978-1-925553-31-4

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