Gender Equality in the Labor Market in the Philippines

Publication | December 2013

This report analyzes gender equality in the labor market and related policies and legislation in the Philippines, and concludes with recommendations to promote gender equality.

  • US$22.00 (paperback)

Key mechanisms for attaining inclusive growth for women requires expanding employment opportunities and decent work outcomes for women to promote gender equality in labor markets.

Economic growth in the Philippines, however, has not translated into sufficient employment growth and the employment growth has not been inclusive for women. Generally speaking, there has been little improvement in gender equality in the labor market, as measured by the share of women in waged employment in the nonagriculture sector. In the Philippines, the estimated proportion of women's annual earnings to men's annual earnings stands at less than 60%.

However, employment growth alone is not sufficient to judge whether there is inclusive growth, especially in low-income countries where there is significant underemployment and a large informal employment sector. Gender inequality in the labor market is ascertained here by reference to seven gender gaps (or deficits for women): labor force participation, human capital, the unpaid domestic and care work burden, vulnerable employment, wage employment, decent work, and social protection. Despite a variety of gender-responsive legal and policy initiatives, an assessment of the labor market in the Philippines reveals that although some gender gaps have been reduced, women still suffer from persistent gender deficits.

About this report

This report on gender equality in the labor market in the Philippines is drawn from studies by a team of international consultants selected by ADB for a technical assistance project on promoting gender equality in Asian labor markets for inclusive growth, implemented in cooperation with the International Labour Office (ILO), Bangkok.

This report comprises a gendered analysis of the Philippines' labor market, policies, and legislation, and provides recommendations for policies and legislation that have the potential to expand or improve employment and work opportunities for women in specific sectors in the Philippines.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Gendered Employment and Inclusive Growth
  • Review of Policies for Gender Equality in the Labor Market
  • Review of Legislative Frameworks and Laws for Gender Equality in the Labor Market
  • Policy and Legislative Recommendationsfor a Gender-Inclusive Labor Market
  • References

Additional Details

  • Gender Equality
  • Social development and protection
  • Social protection - labor and employment
  • Philippines
  • RPT136187-3
  • 978-92-9254-403-4 (print)
  • 978-92-9254-404-1 (electronic)

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