How Women Have Fared with the Rise of the People’s Republic of China in Global Supply Chain Trade

Publication | July 2017

This paper examines the effects of the People's Republic of China's rapid integration into the global supply chain on women’s occupational status.

The analysis shows global integration through trade expansion improved the concentration of men and women equally in professional and skilled occupations and in management positions but increased employment in manufacturing for global supply chain trade faster for women than men. This led to relative income gains for women, which in turn decreased the male–female sex ratio among those aged 0–4 years. Gender-specific policies like higher education and skills training for professional and leadership positions complemented with private sector incentives for female employment can promote gender equality.


  • Trend Analysis of Global Supply Chain Trade and Women's Employment
    • The Evolving Position of the People’s Republic of China in Global Supply Chain Trade
    • The Evolution of Women’s Employment Status
  • Panel Data Analysis
    • Model Specification
    • Summary of Data
    • Key Findings

Additional Details

  • Gender Equality
  • Industry and trade
  • China, People's Republic of
  • WPS178925-2
  • 2313-6537 (Print)
  • 2313-6545 (e-ISSN)

Published Version

Wang, Limin and Jeni Klugman. 2020. "How Women Have Fared in the Labour Market with China's Rise as a Global Economic Power." Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies 7 (1): 43–64.

Note: ADB recognizes "China" as the People's Republic of China.

Subscribe to our monthly digest of latest ADB publications.

Follow ADB Publications on social media.