Inclusive Growth in the People’s Republic of China: A Deep Look at Men and Women’s Work Amid Demographic, Technological, and Structural Transformations

Publication | December 2019

This paper explores the impacts of demographic, technological, and structural transformations on the work of men and women in the People’s Republic of China.

Three types of gender-based constraints that hamper inclusive growth are identified: gender gaps in educational attainment; gender stereotypes affecting employment decisions; and competing demands of work and family, especially on women. The paper recommends (i) investing in rural women with a targeted approach, (ii) developing elderly care services, (iii) tackling gender stereotyping and segregation in occupations, (iv) increasing public spending on early childhood education and care, and (v) considering pension reform.


  • Introduction
  • Critical Shifts Shaping the People's Republic of China in the Last Decades
  • Gender and Demographic, Technological, and Structural Transformations
  • Trends in Men and Women's Labor Market Outcome
  • Gendered Pattern of Time Use
  • Policy Responses from Selected Countries
  • Concluding Remarks and Policy Implications

Additional Details

  • Education
  • Gender Equality
  • Poverty
  • Inclusive growth
  • Social development and protection
  • Social protection - labor and employment
  • China, People's Republic of
  • 48
  • 8.5 x 11
  • WPS190615-2

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