Macroeconomic Effects of COVID-19 in a Commodity-Exporting Economy: Evidence from Mongolia

Publication | August 2022

The economic turmoil and labor market dislocation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic continue in the Mongolian economy despite extraordinary political support.

We examine macroeconomic effects and transmission mechanisms of COVID-19 in Mongolia, a developing and commodity-exporting economy, by estimating a Bayesian structural vector autoregression on quarterly data. We find strong cross-border spillover effects of COVID-19. Our estimates suggest that the People’s Republic of China’s GDP and copper price shocks account, respectively, for three-fifths and one-fifth of the drop in real GDP in 2020Q1. The recovery observed for Q2 2020–Q1 2021 is primarily due to positive external shocks. However, disruptions in credit and labor markets have been sustained in the economy. Two-thirds of the fall in employment in Q1 2021 could be attributed to adverse labor demand shocks. We also reveal novel empirical evidence for the balance sheet channel of the exchange rate, the financial accelerator effects, and an indirect channel of wage shock to consumer price passing through bank credit.


Additional Details

  • Economics
  • Health
  • China, People's Republic of
  • Mongolia