Nonperforming Loans in Asia and Europe—Causes, Impacts, and Resolution Strategies

Publication | December 2021

This book traces trends in nonperforming loans (NPLs) during and after financial crises in Asia and Europe. It examines the impact of high NPLs, compares the effectiveness of resolution strategies, and explores policy considerations.

  • US$43.00 (paperback)

The volume highlights the need for decisive and comprehensive policy action to help manage NPLs swiftly. It explores the legal and economic conditions conducive to NPL resolution, the role of asset management companies, the potential of technological solutions, and the importance of regional financial cooperation. It provides insights to help policy makers chart a course through the financial and economic fallout of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to recovery and sustained financial stability in Asia, Europe, and beyond. The publication is a collaborative project of the Asian Development Bank and the European Central Bank.


  • Summary of Nonperforming Loan Trends and Lessons from Three Decades of Crisis Resolution in Asia and Europe
    • Trends of Nonperforming Loans in Asia and Europe
    • Lessons from Three Decades of Banking Crisis Resolution: Overstating Moral Hazard?
  • Empirical Analyses of the Macrofinancial Implications of Nonperforming Loans in Asia and Europe
    • Assessing Macrofinancial Implications and Resolution Policies of Nonperforming Loans
    • Do Nonperforming Loans Matter for Bank Lending and the Business Cycle in Euro Area Countries?
  • Country Case Studies on Nonperforming Loan Resolution in Asia and Europe
    • Country Case Studies on Resolving Problem Loans in Asia: Crises, Policies, and Institutions
    • Country Case Studies on Resolving Problem Loans in Europe: Crises, Policies, and Institutions
  • Policy Strategies for Nonperforming Loan Resolution and Market Development in Asia and Europe
    • Resolution of Nonperforming Loans in the Euro Area
    • Strategies for Developing Asia’s Nonperforming Loan Markets and Resolution Mechanisms

Additional Details

  • Economics
  • Finance sector development
  • 314
  • 6 x 9
  • TCS210412-2
  • 978-92-9269-115-8 (print)
  • 978-92-9269-116-5 (electronic)
  • 978-92-9269-117-2 (ebook)

Subscribe to our monthly digest of latest ADB publications.

Follow ADB Publications on social media.