Pro-Poor Policy and Regulatory Reform of Water and Energy Supply Services

Publication | April 2010

This brief describes how pro-poor approaches go beyond macro-level efforts at poverty reduction; they target particular activities and populations in relation to energy and water supply.

Asia and the Pacific is home to about 1.8 billion people who survive on less than $2.00 a day and 903 million people living below the poverty line of less than $1.25 a day. Over 406 million people in rural areas and 93 million people in urban areas lack access to adequate water, while over 1.9 billion people in the region are living without basic sanitation facilities4 About 1 billion people in Asia and the Pacific do not have access to electricity.


  • What do Asian Development Bank Policies Say?
  • Who are the Poor?
  • How do the Poor Access Water and Energy Services?
  • How do Main Network Service Providers Help or Hinder Access for the Poor?
  • How are Utility Service Providers Regulated?
  • How are Alternative Service Providers Regulated?
  • What is Pro-Poor Policy and Regulation, and What are its Objectives?
  • When Should Pro-Poor Policy and Regulation be Considered?
  • How can the Poor Benefit from Policy and Regulatory Reform?
  • What is the Substance of Pro-Poor Regulation?
  • Expanding Access
  • Offering Varying Levels of Quality
  • Ensuring Affordability
  • What is the Role of the Regulator?
  • Next Steps: Advancing a Pro-Poor Utility Services Agenda

Additional Details

  • Energy
  • Governance and public sector management
  • Law
  • Poverty
  • Water
  • Cambodia
  • Indonesia
  • Mongolia
  • Nepal
  • Philippines
  • Singapore

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