The Role and Impact of Infrastructure in Middle-Income Countries: Anything Special?
This paper finds that the provision of infrastructure varies across different levels of development and growth performance. Basic infrastructure, such as transport, water, and sanitation, are emphasized more during early stages of development, while "advanced" infrastructure, such as power and specially information and communication technology, become more important during later stages. In addition, better-performing middle-income countries tend to have more information and communication technology infrastructure than their peers, and tend to invest more in infrastructure. Finally, public investment is shown to have a more significant and sustained impact on output in middle-income countries than in low-income countries.
- Primer: Infrastructure and the Economy
- Taking Stock: The Stylized Facts
- Infrastructure Provision and Investment: Going Deeper
- The Macroeconomic Effects of Public Investment