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Observations and Suggestions

Observations and Suggestions is a publication series produced by experts from inside and outside of ADB's East Asia Department. The policy notes are designed to provide information and advice on development issues to East Asia’s civil servants and policymakers. They are produced either on request from the Government or as an initiative of the East Asia Department on topics expected to emerge as policy or reform priorities.

《观察与建议》是一份由亚洲开发银行东亚局内部和外部专家编写的系列政策报告,旨在就优先发展问题向东亚的公务人员和高层决策者提供信息和建议。议题主要由政府提出特别请求或由东亚局发起,针对预期可能出现的政策或改革重点论题进行研究并给出建议。

Ажиглалт ба Санал цувралыг Зүүн Азийн улс орнуудын хөгжлийн асуудлаар төрийн албан хаагчид болон бодлого тодорхойлогчдод мэдээлэл, зөвлөгөө өгөх зорилгоор АХБ-ны Зүүн Азийн газрын болон бусад газрын мэргэжилтэн, шинжээчид бэлтгэн хэвлүүлдэг. Цаашдаа бодлогын болон шинэчлэлийн эн тэргүүнд тавигдах сэдвүүдийн хүрээнд Засгийн газрын хүсэлтээр эсвэл Зүүн Азийн газрын өөрийн санаачилгаар бэлтгэн гаргадаг.


  • Wages and Competitiveness in the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 17 Feb 2013

    Wages and Competitiveness in the People's Republic of China

    This policy note will examine international experiences and practices to ensure labor market competitiveness in the context of gross domestic product growth moderation and upgrading labor skills, in line with government targets to reach higher income levels.

  • 中国的工资水平和竞争力 Papers and Briefs | 17 Feb 2013

    中国的工资水平和竞争力

    本篇政策说明将对国际经验和实践进行分析和研究,探索在GDP增长发生变化、劳动技能提升的情况下,如何既能保证劳动力市场的竞争力,又能确保政府实现居民收入达到更高水平的目标。

  • 中国廉租房融资 Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2012

    中国廉租房融资

    贫民窟是城市衰败和贫穷的代名词。与其他国家不同,中华人民共和国(中国)在很大程度上避免了市区内众多人口聚集的贫民窟。尽管贫民窟在中国确实存在,但居住在贫民窟的人口占城市人口的百分比已经从1999年的44%下降到了2009年的29%。然而,由于人口绝对数量庞大,城市人口不断增长,城市贫民窟的人口数量实际上从1999年的接近1.32亿增加到2009年的超过1.8亿。

    以此为背景,本政策简报对现行的政府住房政策、廉租房的现状以及主要的国际经验教训进行了总结。简报还提出了关于廉租房的融资方式并给出相应的政策建议。

  • Financing Low-Cost Rental Housing in the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2012

    Financing Low-Cost Rental Housing in the People's Republic of China

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) largely appears to have avoided crowded slums synonymous with urban decay and poverty in inner-city areas of other developing countries. While slums do exist in the PRC, the percent living in slums has fallen from around 44% of the urban population in 1999 to 29% in 2009. Yet, due to the sheer size of the population and urban population growth, the number of people living in urban slums has actually increased from nearly 132 million in 1999 to over 180 million by 2009.

  • 加快中国地方国库现金管理改革进程 Papers and Briefs | 01 May 2012

    加快中国地方国库现金管理改革进程

    国库现金管理的最高目标是确保政府能够及时开支和履行其义务。虽然地方政府国库现金管理与公共财政中其他改革同样重要,但在包括中国在内的多数国家中其改革步伐相对迟缓。近年来,中国多数省级财政部门加大了地方政府国库现金管理改革力度。

    本政策简报首先指出了中国未来面临的各种挑战,然后根据国际最佳实践,提出加快中国地方政府国库现金管理改革的政策建议。

  • Accelerating Reform of Local Treasury Cash Management in the PRC Papers and Briefs | 01 May 2012

    Accelerating Reform of Local Treasury Cash Management in the PRC

    The overriding objective of treasury cash management is to ensure that the government is able to fund its expenditures and meet its obligations in a timely manner. While local government treasury cash management is equally important to other reforms in public finance, adequate reforms have lagged behind in most countries including the People's Republic of China (PRC). In recent years, most provincial fiscal authorities in the PRC have intensified their efforts to reform local government treasury cash management.

  • 在中国开展有条件现金转移支付项目的理据 Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2012

    在中国开展有条件现金转移支付项目的理据

    中华人民共和国(中国)自三十多年前实行经济改革以来,收入不平等问题急剧恶化。收入差距不断加大给中国政府的包容性、均衡发展战略带来了重大挑战。这个问题如果得不到解决,将会抑制消费,制约贫困地区的发展,引发社会矛盾,从而阻碍中国未来的发展。

    成功的国际经验表明,有条件现金转移支付是一种有效且具有财政可持续性的长期减贫方法。此外,由于中国政府最近上调了贫困线,界定的贫困人口总数从2,800万增加为1.28亿,此时在中国开展有条件现金转移支付项目显得合乎时宜。

  • The Case for Conditional Cash Transfers in the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2012

    The Case for Conditional Cash Transfers in the People's Republic of China

    Since the start of economic reforms more than three decades ago, income inequality has deteriorated sharply in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The growing gap poses a major challenge to the government's inclusive and balanced development strategy. If not addressed, inequality will hinder the PRC's future growth by undermining consumption, constraining development in poorer regions, and generating social tensions.

  • Slowdown of Fast-Growing Economies: International Evidence and Implications for the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 01 Nov 2011

    Slowdown of Fast-Growing Economies: International Evidence and Implications for the People's Republic of China

    International historical experience indicates that rapidly growing developing countries eventually slow down as income levels rise. Analysis of this experience indicates that the People's Republic of China (PRC) is approaching per capita income levels at which growth typically slows. The fact that the PRC has grown at unprecedented levels, maintained a highly competitive exchange rate, sustained consumption at a small share of GDP, and is now facing rapid population aging, suggest the possibility of a growth slowdown in the future.
  • 快速成长经济体的增长放缓:国际证据及其对中国的启示 Papers and Briefs | 01 Nov 2011

    快速成长经济体的增长放缓:国际证据及其对中国的启示

    国际历史经验表明,随着收入水平的上升,快速成长的发展中国家的经济增长最终将会放缓。经验分析表 明,中华人民共和国(中国)的人均收入水平正在接近一个临界点,在此临界点左右的经济增长通常趋于放缓。 实际上,中国以前所未有的速度快速成长、维持一个高度竞争的汇率和可持续的消费水平(后者占GDP比重较低)以及面临着人口迅速老龄化的事实,均暗示未来中国经济增长放缓的可能。 由于经济增长放缓是不是一个机械的现象,可以采取适当措施延迟其影响。本文提出延长中国快速增长时期的几点建议,重点在于引入改革以消除三个高风险因素,即汇率低估、消费不足和快速的人口老龄化。

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