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Observations and Suggestions

Observations and Suggestions is a publication series produced by experts from inside and outside of ADB's East Asia Department. The policy notes are designed to provide information and advice on development issues to East Asia’s civil servants and policymakers. They are produced either on request from the Government or as an initiative of the East Asia Department on topics expected to emerge as policy or reform priorities.

《观察与建议》是一份由亚洲开发银行东亚局内部和外部专家编写的系列政策报告,旨在就优先发展问题向东亚的公务人员和高层决策者提供信息和建议。议题主要由政府提出特别请求或由东亚局发起,针对预期可能出现的政策或改革重点论题进行研究并给出建议。

Ажиглалт ба Санал цувралыг Зүүн Азийн улс орнуудын хөгжлийн асуудлаар төрийн албан хаагчид болон бодлого тодорхойлогчдод мэдээлэл, зөвлөгөө өгөх зорилгоор АХБ-ны Зүүн Азийн газрын болон бусад газрын мэргэжилтэн, шинжээчид бэлтгэн хэвлүүлдэг. Цаашдаа бодлогын болон шинэчлэлийн эн тэргүүнд тавигдах сэдвүүдийн хүрээнд Засгийн газрын хүсэлтээр эсвэл Зүүн Азийн газрын өөрийн санаачилгаар бэлтгэн гаргадаг.


  • People's Republic of China Electricity Sector Challenges and Future Policy Directions Papers and Briefs | 01 Aug 2011

    People's Republic of China Electricity Sector Challenges and Future Policy Directions

    The electricity sector in the People's Republic of China (PRC) includes the technically most complex infrastructure that produces and delivers electricity just-in-time to almost the entire population across the country through wires. It has come a long way from an estimated less than 2 gigawatt (GW) of installed capacity in 1949 to more than 900 GW by 2010. After initial sluggish start, the sector has grown rapidly, particularly in the past two decades. During the 2001-2010 period alone, it has almost tripled its capacity.

  • 第十二个五年规划:观察和政策 建议 Papers and Briefs | 01 Apr 2011

    第十二个五年规划:观察和政策 建议

    第十二个五年规划的主要目标之一是要转变增长模式,从以往注重工业生产、资本投资和出口转变为服务和消费驱动型增长模式,这一点对解决中国的社会、环境和外部失衡等问题十分重要。 在这个五年规划中,主要目标都体现出了对以往五年规划中经济再平衡政策的延续,新增加了创新驱动型产业政策和更坚定地发展低碳经济的政策家。 如果不采取更大胆的政策调整措施,就不可能实现经济再平衡。因此,必需关注以下一些重要政策:将公共财政开支的重点从投资转向公共服务,进一步开放金融行业,鼓励私营部门更多参与经济活动,开展金融改革以缩小收入差距,改善地方政府的财政状况等等。
  • The 12th Five-Year Plan: Overview and Policy Recommendations Papers and Briefs | 01 Apr 2011

    The 12th Five-Year Plan: Overview and Policy Recommendations

    Critical among the objectives of the 12th Five-Year Plan is changing the growth pattern toward a more services and consumption driven model, away from the past emphasis on industrial production, capital investment, and exports, which is necessary to address the People's Republic of China's (PRC) social, environmental and external imbalances. While the key objectives suggest a continuation of the previous plan's policies to rebalance the economy, new features include innovation-driven industrial policy and more determined steps toward a low-carbon economy.
  • 中国跨越中等收入阶段所面临的挑战 Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2011

    中国跨越中等收入阶段所面临的挑战

    国际经验表明,从中等收入国家跃升为高收入国家要比从低收入国家过渡到中等收入国家更加复杂。而且,在向更高收入国家迈进的过程中,早期成功的发展战略往往不再继续有效。 30年成功的改革已使中国成为世界第二大经济体。由于发展迅速,中国从低收入国家一跃成为中等收入国家。然而,中国目前面临的挑战是如何成为更高收入的国家。 国际经验有助于中国制定新的战略,实现长期稳定的增长。实际上,大部分亟须的改革内容已在"十二五"规划和经济结构调整中得以体现。因此,加大该计划的实施力度对中国迈向更高收入国家至关重要。
  • 中国的资源税 Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2011

    中国的资源税

    目前,在新疆维吾尔族自治区(新疆)试行从价计征的资源税,为自治区从石油和天然气开采项目中获得更多财政收入带来了可喜的前景。因此,建议在全国范围内实行从价计征的资源税。 由于石油和天然气是国际性交易商品,可以为开采的自然资源提供很好的参考价格。建议为从价计征的资源税建立核定销售指数机制。 中国的石油和天然气产业高度集中,通常是一家公司完成从开采、提炼到销售终端产品的全过程。因此,价格转移的风险很高。建议严控价格转移,并使之与国际标准看齐。 与其他国家相比,新疆采用的5%的资源税税率相对较低。因而,建议参考其他国家的石油和天然气税率标准,以确定资源税税率可以提高到何种程度。
  • The Challenges of Middle Income Transition in the PRC Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2011

    The Challenges of Middle Income Transition in the PRC

    International experiences suggest that moving up from middle-income to high income status appears to be more complex than moving up from the low-income to middle-income range. Further, growth strategies that proved successful in earlier stages of development are less effective when moving up to higher income levels.
  • Natural Resource Taxation in the PRC Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2011

    Natural Resource Taxation in the PRC

    The currently piloted ad valorem natural resource tax in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) offers a welcomed possibility of increasing the provincial revenue share from oil and gas extraction projects. Hence, it is recommended to implement the ad valorem natural resource tax nation-wide. Oil and gas are internationally traded and offer robust reference points that could be used when linked to the extracted natural resource. It is proposed the establishment of a deemed sale indexing mechanism for ad valorem natural resource taxes.
  • 加快打造一个全覆盖社会保障体系 Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2010

    加快打造一个全覆盖社会保障体系

    社会保障已经被证明是减少贫困、缩小收入差距和维持经济增长的最重要的手段之一。有了社会保障, 劳动者身体更健康, 劳动力供给更充裕,生产效率提高得更快。一个全面的社会保障体系使劳动者在面临社会风险(特别是与疾病和养老有关的风险)获得一定的保护。它还能缩小收入差距,促进消费、扩大内需, 为包容式增长提供更多支持。

    要建立覆盖全民的社会保障体系,需要面对三大主要挑战:人口老龄化1、城市化进程加快及劳动力市场改革。本政策简报旨在找出中国的社会保障体系目前存在的问题,借鉴国际成功经验,为加快打造覆盖全民的社会保障体系提供一些政策建议。

  • Toward Universal Social Security Coverage in the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2010

    Toward Universal Social Security Coverage in the People's Republic of China

    Social security has proven to reduce poverty, narrow income inequality and sustain economic growth. Further, access to social protection creates a healthy labor force, reduces work absenteeism and improves productivity levels. By securing incomes and protecting workers from social risks, in particular from those associated with disease and old-age, a comprehensive social security system reduces income inequalities, fosters consumption and the role of domestic demand as a driver of growth, and, ultimately, supports more inclusive growth.

  • 中国人口老龄化和长期老龄护理 Papers and Briefs | 28 Mar 2010

    中国人口老龄化和长期老龄护理

    中国人口的快速老龄化,正在给医疗服务,尤其是长期老龄护理服务供给带来越来越大的资金压力。在这种 情况下,贫困的老年人是一个特别脆弱的群体。

    尽管中国已经在扩大医疗保险覆盖率方面取得了长足进步,但在医疗总支出中,自费支出的比例仍然 高达45%-50%,这使得农村老年人以及城市中的贫困人群更难享受到合适的医疗服务。为了尽可能地 减少他们的支付能力不足问题,我们建议在进一步扩大医疗保险的覆盖面的同时,建立一个低成本的 简单有效的老龄护理服务体系,对贫困人群降低医保缴费率,设定自费支付最高限额,严格监管医疗 服务供给体系。

    由于中国传统孝道观念正在逐步改变,加之计划生育政策的影响,中国社会很难继续完全依靠子女为 父母提供养老保障。我们建议中国通过建设更多的低成本的简单有效的长期医疗护理设施、培养充足 的长期医疗护理人员,建立健全长期医疗护理服务供给体系。

    应对长期医疗护理融资问题有多种途径。一种可供选择的方案是,将贫穷的老年人和有严重功能性障 碍的人作为政府财政优先援助的目标群体,该方案优于成本较高的由财政支持的普惠型的老龄护理体 系;随着长期老龄护理体系的逐步完善,政府可以依据支付能力、逐步扩大长期服务的覆盖面。

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