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Observations and Suggestions

Observations and Suggestions is a publication series produced by experts from inside and outside of ADB's East Asia Department. The policy notes are designed to provide information and advice on development issues to East Asia’s civil servants and policymakers. They are produced either on request from the Government or as an initiative of the East Asia Department on topics expected to emerge as policy or reform priorities.

《观察与建议》是一份由亚洲开发银行东亚局内部和外部专家编写的系列政策报告,旨在就优先发展问题向东亚的公务人员和高层决策者提供信息和建议。议题主要由政府提出特别请求或由东亚局发起,针对预期可能出现的政策或改革重点论题进行研究并给出建议。

Ажиглалт ба Санал цувралыг Зүүн Азийн улс орнуудын хөгжлийн асуудлаар төрийн албан хаагчид болон бодлого тодорхойлогчдод мэдээлэл, зөвлөгөө өгөх зорилгоор АХБ-ны Зүүн Азийн газрын болон бусад газрын мэргэжилтэн, шинжээчид бэлтгэн хэвлүүлдэг. Цаашдаа бодлогын болон шинэчлэлийн эн тэргүүнд тавигдах сэдвүүдийн хүрээнд Засгийн газрын хүсэлтээр эсвэл Зүүн Азийн газрын өөрийн санаачилгаар бэлтгэн гаргадаг.


  • Social Assistance for Migrant Workers Displaced by the Economic Downturn: Providing a Safety Net for a Strong Recovery Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2009

    Social Assistance for Migrant Workers Displaced by the Economic Downturn: Providing a Safety Net for a Strong Recovery

    A proactive and strong Government response has helped limit the impact of the global economic crisis on the People's Republic of China (PRC) compared with other economies. Beyond aggregate figures, however, the crisis has cost at least 20 million jobs and led to massive displacement of the PRC's migrant workforce - concentrated in low-skilled and export-driven sectors hardest hit by the downturn. A protracted downturn may create both immediate and longer-term challenges.
  • Improving Environmental Management in the PRC: Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Plans Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2009

    Improving Environmental Management in the PRC: Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Plans

    In March 2008, the PRC Government published the Rules and Regulations of the State Council on Managing the Environmental Impact Assessment of Plans (Draft for Comments). This note suggests several ways to improve implementation procedures and operation mechanisms for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of plans:

  • 金融危机影响下的农民工社会救助: 完善社会安全网, 强化国家经济社会快速复原的基础 Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2009

    金融危机影响下的农民工社会救助: 完善社会安全网, 强化国家经济社会快速复原的基础

    中国政府有预见的、强有力的应对措施有效地减轻了全球金融危机以及经济下滑对 中国经济的影响。 这场危机导致了大量农民工的失业,使得2000万农民工失去了在城市的工作。这些 失业人群集中在受金融危机影响最大的低技术和出口为导向的产业。经济低谷持续 下去将会带来近期和长期的挑战。 近几年政府在建设城乡社会保障制度方面已取得了长足的进展,而现在需要尽快完 善这些制度和机制以应对农民工的脆弱性。 亚洲开发银行专家组在农民工中发现两类新型贫困群体:(1)缺乏保障和社会支持 的留城失业农民工;(2)失去土地或其他生计的返乡农民工。 专家组根据调查和分析,提出了既可以快速应对农民工的脆弱性,又着眼长期目标 的双赢干预措施:(1)加强对这些群体有针对性的临时救助;(2)制定新的措施, 保护长期的人力资本投资;(3)在中央政府强有力的支持和监察下强化各项政策的 整合。
  • 关于改进中国规划环评管理体系的建议 Papers and Briefs | 01 Mar 2009

    关于改进中国规划环评管理体系的建议

    2008 年 3 月,政府公布了《国务院规划环境影响评价条例(征求意见稿)》。本文在 分析相关问题的基础上,提出了完善中国规划环评实施程序和运作机制的若干建议。

    赋予中央和地方环保部门对规划环评的审批权,而不仅仅是"审查权" 由环保部门牵头,成立"规划环评联席委员会" 成立新型规划环评审查小组 提高利益相关者的参与度 环保部门应加强对规划环评的跟踪
  • Low-Income Housing Policies: Lessons from International Experience Papers and Briefs | 01 Feb 2009

    Low-Income Housing Policies: Lessons from International Experience

    Based on international experience, housing policies should adopt an integrated approach connecting the provision of low-income housing to social programs, and addressing the new housing needs arising from demographic and social changes. In this process, it is important to clearly define targets and eligibility criteria to enhance policy effectiveness. In light of the existing low-income housing shortage, it seems appropriate to rely more on supply-side incentives in the short-to-medium term, while targeting an increased reliance on demand subsidies in the longer run.
  • Managing International Capital Flows in the People's Republic of China Papers and Briefs | 01 Feb 2009

    Managing International Capital Flows in the People's Republic of China

    The current global financial crisis shows the need for policies to promote financial stability. Despite strict capital controls, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is vulnerable to large inflows and outflows of speculative capital with the potential to destabilize the financial system. A review of international experience managing capital flows shows that the PRC Government can better manage capital flows through the following reforms:

  • 低收入住房政策:国际经验与教训 Papers and Briefs | 01 Feb 2009

    低收入住房政策:国际经验与教训

    根据国际经验,住房政策应采用统筹措施,将提供低收入住房纳入社会规划中, 并解决人口和社会变化带来的新住房需求。在此过程中,重要的是要明确设立目 标和资格标,从而提高政策的有效性。 鉴于目前低收入住房供给短缺,中短期内,政策应更倾向于对供应方采取激励措 施,同时力求在较长期内逐渐转向对需求方补贴。 从体制角度看,低收入住房政策一般实行权力下放至地方,就全世界范围来看, 最为成功的规划依赖于通过适当的立法和激励措施来保障中央和地方的良好合 作。 帮助低收入人群获得住房融资的各项措施,包括公共住房抵押贷款或担保、更灵 活的贷款条件和优惠利率等,通常是制度安排的坚实基础。 可以考虑建立国家住房机构(National Housing Agency)。该机构可以在制定和 执行全国住房计划、建立低收入住房信贷计划以及制定措施激励私营部门开发低 收入住房等方面发挥有益的作用。
  • 加强中国国际资本流动管理 Papers and Briefs | 01 Feb 2009

    加强中国国际资本流动管理

    当前的全球金融危机表明需要采取措施促进金融稳定。尽管中国对国际资本流动的控 制极为严格,但仍有可能受到投机资本大规模流入与流出的冲击,从而影响其金融体系的 稳定性。资本流动管理的国际经验表明:通过如下改革,中国政府可以更好地对资本流动 进行管理。

    加快金融部门的改革与发展。 短期内继续实行资本控制,特别是加强对金融机构和大型公司的资本控制。 放宽对国内居民的限制,促进投资国外资产。 从长期看,应继续向开放资本账户的方向发展。 考虑汇率政策对资本流动的影响。
  • Recommendations for Dealing with the Transition from Disaster Response to Recovery Papers and Briefs | 01 Jul 2008

    Recommendations for Dealing with the Transition from Disaster Response to Recovery

    This note is directed to sound practices pertaining to the transition from disaster response to recovery, and offers suggestions on areas to pursue when an ADB Member Country moves from the rescue and relief phase to the recovery phase in the aftermath of disaster.

  • Earthquake Insurance: Lessons from International Experience and Key Issues for Developing Earthquake Insurance in the PRC Papers and Briefs | 01 Jun 2008

    Earthquake Insurance: Lessons from International Experience and Key Issues for Developing Earthquake Insurance in the PRC

    This note reviews the earthquake and catastrophe insurance in New Zealand, Japan, United States, Turkey, Taipei,China, Indonesia, and examines the key issues for developing earthquake insurance in the People's Republic of China.

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