Sustainable Development Working Papers
The Sustainable Development Working Papers highlight successful projects and good practices to promote quality, knowledge, and innovation for sustainable development within the ADB recipient countries.
Costing Social Protection Reform for Asia and the Pacific: Strategies for Financing Social Protection to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in the Developing Member Countries
This working paper presents the findings, in terms of projected costs and estimated coverage (2024–2030), of social protection reform for Asia and the Pacific, with variations in benefit levels, benefit durations, and other parameters of social protection programs as relevant for countries in the region.
Enhancing Policy and Regulatory Approaches to Strengthen Digital, Platform, and Data Economies
This working paper aims to support developing member countries in developing policies and regulations for their digital, platform, and data economies through a case study of nine countries and regions.
Adult Vaccination in Asia and the Pacific: Policies, Financial Needs, and Fiscal Impacts
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective tools for improving health and well-being. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic illustrated the importance of having a well-functioning vaccination delivery system that can deliver vaccines to all population groups.
Climate Resilient Fiscal Planning in Armenia
This working paper highlights Armenia’s progress and needs in scaling up finance for comprehensive adaptation investments and fiscal planning to deepen resilience to climate change.
Mobilizing Resources through Municipal Bonds: Experiences from Developed and Developing Countries
Municipal bonds are an innovative external source of financing for strengthening the financial sustainability of cities—one of the main objectives of Strategy 2030 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Cross-Sector Infrastructure Co-deployment: Closing Digital Connectivity Gaps through Collaboration and Sharing
Infrastructure co-deployment between sectors is an effective and proven strategy to expand infrastructure service coverage and reduce the costs of deployment. However, in practice, suboptimal levels of infrastructure co-deployment exist because of various market, institutional, and regulatory barriers.
Taxation and Gender in Asia and the Pacific: A Review of Gender Equality Provisions in Fiscal Legal Frameworks
Tax systems and policies in the Asia and Pacific region contribute to—or hinder—gender equality in several socioeconomic dimensions, including labor force participation and the distribution of income and household unpaid care.
Assessing the Maturity of National Road Safety Management Systems
Using theoretical and analytical foundations, this working paper shows the development and use of a maturity assessment framework to support ADB operations and road safety improvement in developing member countries.
Accelerating Low-Carbon Pathways through E-Mobility: Perspectives from Developing Economies
This paper analyzes the uptake of electric vehicles in Asia and the Pacific and shows how the electrification of transport systems can speed up the transition to a low-carbon future.
Last Mile Connectivity: Addressing the Affordability Frontier
This working paper addresses the challenge to implement "last mile" solutions that deliver affordable internet connectivity to communities in Asia and the Pacific region.