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Explore our data-rich research, policy analysis, toolkits, guidelines, and other resources on economics and key development topics. Our operational documents are also available in this section.

Sustainable Development Working Papers

The Sustainable Development Working Papers highlight successful projects and good practices to promote quality, knowledge, and innovation for sustainable development within the ADB recipient countries.


  • Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities State and Issues Papers and Briefs | 01 Feb 2011

    Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities State and Issues

    Asian cities, traditionally cities of walkers, are now experiencing exponential increase in motorization, which has limited the attention given to pedestrian and public transport facilities. A change in focus that will allow people, not vehicles, to reclaim the urban environment is required. The study provides information on the current pedestrian infrastructure in selected cities that can be used to develop and propose pedestrian-focused solutions for Asian cities.

  • Food and Nutrition Security Status in India Opportunities for Investment Partnerships Papers and Briefs | 01 Nov 2010

    Food and Nutrition Security Status in India Opportunities for Investment Partnerships

    India is a net agricultural exporter but food availability is threatened by the effects of climate change and declining water resources on agriculture output.

  • The Changing Role of Rice in Asia's Food Security Papers and Briefs | 01 Sep 2010

    The Changing Role of Rice in Asia's Food Security

    Food security in Asia has traditionally focused on rice, but the share of rice in Asian economies as well as household food consumption is declining very rapidly, thanks to rapid economic growth in the region and its accompanying structural transformation. The size of demand, nevertheless, remains important because rice continues to be the largest single source of calories for the majority of consumers who are poor.

  • Approaches to Combat Hunger in Asia and the Pacific Papers and Briefs | 01 Aug 2010

    Approaches to Combat Hunger in Asia and the Pacific

    The Millennium Development Goals envision halving the incidence of poverty and hunger by 2015 and call for major improvements in the provision of basic services.

  • ADB's Contribution to Inclusive Growth in Transport and Energy Projects Papers and Briefs | 01 Jun 2010

    ADB's Contribution to Inclusive Growth in Transport and Energy Projects

    The long-term strategic framework, Strategy 2020, of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has three pillars, of which inclusive growth is one. However, unlike for environmental sustainability and regional cooperation, the inclusive growth pillar does not have targets or indicators to measure ADB's contribution. Furthermore, the concept of inclusive growth is only vaguely described, and there are no guidelines as to how it can be made operational, nor contributions being measured in the context of ADB's results framework for Strategy 2020.

  • Inclusive Growth Criteria and Indicators: An Inclusive Growth Index for Diagnosis of Country Progress Papers and Briefs | 01 Jun 2010

    Inclusive Growth Criteria and Indicators: An Inclusive Growth Index for Diagnosis of Country Progress

    The paper constructs a composite inclusive growth index at the country level to measure contribution to inclusive growth. Indicators refer to (i) growth, productive employment, and economic infrastructure; (ii) income poverty and equity (including gender); (iii) human capability dimensions of inclusiveness; and (iv) social protection dimensions of inclusiveness. The methodology is then being applied in case study analysis for Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Uzbekistan. The paper is part of ADB's work on Operationalizing Inclusive Growth.

  • Measuring and Monitoring Inclusive Growth: Multiple Definitions, Open Questions, and Some Constructive Proposals Papers and Briefs | 01 Jun 2010

    Measuring and Monitoring Inclusive Growth: Multiple Definitions, Open Questions, and Some Constructive Proposals

    Inclusive growth has become a strategic pillar for guiding the activities of the Asian Development Bank in its operational strategy. At the same time, there exists no clear definition or indicator to monitor progress in inclusive growth at the country, project, or program level. This paper reviews existing definitions of inclusive growth and proposes an approach to defining and measuring inclusive growth as non-discriminatory and disadvantage-reducing growth.

  • Transport and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Forecasts, Options Analysis, and Evaluation Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2009

    Transport and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Forecasts, Options Analysis, and Evaluation

    This report provides a discussion on the relevance of measuring greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as air pollution from the transport sector from various methodologies and using the activity-structure-intensity-fuel (ASIF) type model. It aims to guide authorities and researchers in Asia in measuring O2emissions, as well as air pollutants from the urban transport sector. It also provides a discussion on the key parameters needed to be routinely collected by authorities to come up with an accurate estimate of the emissions.

  • Rethinking Transport and Climate Change Papers and Briefs | 01 Dec 2009

    Rethinking Transport and Climate Change

    As part of its lead role among multilateral development banks on transport and climate change, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), as assigned at the Gleneagles G8 Discussions on Climate Change in 2005, has prepared this document to rethink the roles and relationships of transport and climate change. Transport-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are expected to increase dramatically over the next 2 decades, and Asian countries - particularly the People's Republic of China and India - will account for a substantial share of this growth.

  • How is the Global Recession Impacting on Poverty and Social Spending? An Ex Ante Assessment Methodology with Applications to Developing Asia Papers and Briefs | 01 Aug 2009

    How is the Global Recession Impacting on Poverty and Social Spending? An Ex Ante Assessment Methodology with Applications to Developing Asia

    The global economic recession is severely affecting Asian economies. Timely assessment of the economic and social impacts is critical to the formulation and implementation of policy responses. This paper presents a simple methodology of ex ante impact assessment, focusing specifically on how the global recession will affect poverty and social expenditures in developing Asian countries. This involves two steps: first, to gauge how the crisis will affect national and household incomes; and, second, to assess how the income effects are transmitted to poverty and social spending.

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