State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

Publication | May 2014

Assesses Malaysia's coastal ecosystems and the country's plans to rehabilitate marine protected areas, protect threatened and endangered species, adapt to climate change, and respond to the need for community-based initiatives.

Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive national economic gains, Malaysia’s fishers remain poor.

This report assesses Malaysia’s coastal ecosystems and summarizes the country’s plans in

  • rehabilitating marine protected areas;
  • protecting threatened and endangered species;
  • adapting to the negative impacts of climate change; and
  • responding to the need for financially sustainable, community-based initiatives.


The action plans for implementing Malaysia's national plan of action include projects and programs in various stages of development or implementation. The initiatives are led by several government agencies, as well as nongovernment organizations. Problems in implementing these action plans include issues such as:

  • adequate training and skills of officers;
  • adequate financing for longer-term programs; and
  • adequate awareness of decision makers and the public.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Biophysical Characteristics
  • Governance
  • Socioeconomic Characteristics
  • Threats and Vulnerabilities
  • National Plan of Action Initiatives and Future Plans
  • References

Additional Details

  • Environment
  • Natural resources conservation
  • Environmental policy and legislation
  • Malaysia
  • 126
  • 8.5 x 11
  • RPT146476-3
  • 978-92-9254-516-1 (print)
  • 978-92-9254-517-8 (electronic)

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