State of the Coral Triangle: Philippines | Asian Development Bank

State of the Coral Triangle: Philippines

Publication | May 2014
State of the Coral Triangle: Philippines

Describes the characteristics of Philippine marine and coastal ecosystems, their governance per the terms of legal and policy framework, and the institutional arrangements for ensuring compliance with the provisions of that framework.

Located at the apex of the Coral Triangle, the Philippines is an integral part of this global center of marine biodiversity. Unfortunately, climate change and human activities have taken a heavy toll on the country’s coral reefs, mangrove forests, and endangered species, threatening the food security of its growing population. In response, the Philippines has embraced the goals of the Coral Triangle Initiative, adopting actions toward sustainable growth.

This report describes the status of these actions and provides baseline data and information, which policy makers and project implementation agencies can use in monitoring the country’s progress in achieving sustainable development of these vital resources.


Initiatives listed in the Philippines’ national plan of action relate to capacity building, sustainable financing schemes, and public awareness. One innovative initiative is the university mentoring program, which aims to transfer knowledge and skills from centers of excellence to institutions of higher education. This makes the latter better equipped to assist local government units, particularly on the technical aspects of coastal resource management and national plan of action implementation.

On sustainable financing, a range of mechanisms (e.g., payments for ecosystem services) for generating additional funding for government agencies at both the national and local levels have been identified. Such additional funding will enable these governmental units to undertake activities that help fulfill the goals of the Philippines’ national plan of action.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Biophysical Characteristics
  • Governance
  • Socioeconomic Characteristics
  • Threats and Vulnerabilities
  • National Plan of Action Initiatives and Future Plans
  • Appendixes
  • References