Governance Issues: Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (FCAS)


Weakened governance capacity, economic and social disruption, geographic isolation, and insecurity are just some of the unique challenges faced by countries in fragile and conflict-affected situations. Public services delivery systems seldom function well, and the government's ability to guarantee the basic security of its people is often limited. Civil unrest may turn to costly large-scale and violent civil conflict that may impact neighboring countries and the global community.

ADB's Strategy 2030 recognizes the distinct development challenges of FCAS, and promotes a differentiated approach to these groups of developing member countries (DMCs).  Under Strategy 2030, ADB will prioritize its support by providing long-term financing and capacity-development assistance to help build resilience and address causes of fragility or conflict.  The differentiated approach under ADB’s Strategy 2030 builds on ADB’s long-standing support for development in FCAS, which emphasizes the importance of understanding the local context, making a long-term commitment to development, ensuring country ownership, and being flexible in responding to challenges.

For ADB’s operations during 2019, ten DMCs are classified by ADB as FCAS, two of which are affected by conflict (Afghanistan and Myanmar), while the remaining eight are Pacific SIDS and demonstrate the effects of fragility: Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Tuvalu.

ADB’s Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situation Resource Center aims to share and disseminate knowledge and provide technical information on ADB's field experiences in conflict and fragility. It provides useful and relevant knowledge resources and information for the development community in effectively delivering aid in these special cases.

ADB’s operations during 2019

List of countries classified as fragile and conflict-affected situations and countries with ratings marginally above the cutoff point for ADB’s operations in 2019

Under its Operational Plan for ADB’s Effectiveness in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations, Asian Development Bank (ADB) uses the multilateral development banks’ harmonized ratings for determining fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS). A country is considered FCAS if it has an average rating of 3.2 or less based on the ADB country performance assessment and the World Bank Group country policy and institutional assessment. A country is also considered FCAS if a United Nations and/or regional peace-keeping or peace-building mission has been present during the past 3 years.

List of countries classified as fragile and conflict-affected situations and countries with ratings marginally above the cutoff point for ADB’s operations in 2019

Developing Member Country 2018 ADB CPA 2018 WBG CPIAa Peacebuilding Missions present ADB's Harmonized List of FCAS for its 2019 Operations
Afghanistan 2.78 2.68 Yes 2.73
Kiribati 2.96 2.99   2.97
Republic of the Marshall Islands 2.83 2.60   2.71
Federated States of Micronesia 2.86 2.75   2.80
Myanmar 3.38 3.00   3.19
Naurub 2.57     2.57
Papua New Guinea 2.75 2.96   2.86
Solomon Islands 3.20 2.93   3.07
Timor-Leste 3.31 2.85   3.08
Tuvalu 3.02 2.90   2.96
Vanuatu 3.19 3.38   3.28

ADB = Asian Development Bank, CPA = country performance assessment, CPIA = country policy and institutional assessment, FCAS = fragile and conflict-affected situations, WBG = World Bank Group.

a Based on the World Bank Group Harmonized List of Fragile Situations FY19 and the World Bank Databank on Country Policy and Institutional Assessment for 2017 (accessed on 12 November 2018).

b Nauru is not IDA eligible; however it is an ADB DMC and is part of the CPA exercise.

Sources: Asian Development Bank. 2018. Annual Report on the Country Performance Exercise 2018.;
World Bank. 2018. Harmonized List of Fragile Situations FY19. Washington.….

For more information on how the FCAS List for ADB’s operations in 2019 was formulated please refer to Technical Note on Ratings and Methodology for the ADB’s Harmonized List of Fragile Situations.