Financial Products: Private Sector Financing
ADB undertakes nonsovereign operations to provide financing to eligible recipients in developing member countries (DMCs). Nonsovereign operations comprise the provision of any loan, guarantee, equity investment, or other financing arrangement to privately held, state-owned, or subsovereign entities, in each case, (i) without a government guarantee; or (ii) with a government guarantee, under terms that do not allow ADB, upon default by the guarantor, to accelerate, suspend, or cancel any other loan or guarantee between ADB and the related sovereign.
ADB catalyzes private investments through direct financing, credit enhancements, and risk mitigation instruments. ADB provides direct funding assistance through loans and equity investments. We offer political risk guarantee and partial credit guarantee instruments to enhance the risk profiles of transactions to attract both foreign and local commercial lenders to projects in the DMCs, and to encourage them.
Through cofinancing and guarantees, we also support local investors, domestic banks, and financial institutions to provide funds on suitable terms for ADB-assisted development projects. ADB also mobilizes additional resources for projects through a "B-loan" arrangement.
Loans and other debt instruments1
ADB offers hard currency loans, both senior and subordinated, as well as mezzanine financing. We also offer local currency loans in selective markets on a case to case basis. Interest rates and other terms vary, depending on a company’s or project’s needs and risks.
Rates - In pricing its loans, ADB considers prevailing market rates in the relevant country and sector, factoring in country and transaction risks. ADB provides floating rate loans at a spread above the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) or Euro interbank rate, depending on the currency. It also offers fixed-rate loans at the fixed-rate swap equivalent of floating-rate loans.
Fees - Market-based fees are charged. Typically, on floating-rate loans, ADB charges a once-only front-end fee as well as an ongoing commitment fee on the undisbursed balance. We may also charge a fee to cover upfront costs associated with due diligence. Project sponsors or clients will reimburse out-of-pocket expenses, such as travel and external advisory services (i.e., legal counsel, technical consultants, and environmental and insurance advisors, if any).
Security - We will seek security appropriate for the loan and type of financing.
1 Including, by way of example, (i) senior, subordinated, mezzanine, and convertible debt; (ii) project or limited recourse finance; (iii) tier 2 capital raised by banks; (iv) capital market debt instruments including synthetic or structured securities, and the related underwriting and liquidity support arrangements; (v) letters of credit, promissory notes, and bills of exchange (vi) performance, bid, advance, and other payment bonds and forms of bond issuances; and (vii) other forms of financial indebtedness or instruments.